Sumy is a city in north-eastern Ukraine, and the capital of Sumy Oblast (region). Sumy also serves as the administrative center of Sumy Raion of Sumy oblast. Sumy is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 267,633 (2015 est.)
Sumy was founded by Cossack Herasym Kondratyev from Stavyshche, Bila Tserkva Regiment at the bank of the Psel River (a left tributary of the Dnieper). The date of its foundation is a subject of discussion (in 1652 or 1655). In 1656–58 at the site of Sumyn early settlement under leadership of Muscovite voivode K.Arsenyev, there was built a city-fort that consisted of a fort and a grad (town). In 1670s it was expanded by adding a fortified posad (craftsmen town), after which Sumy became the biggest fortress of Sloboda Ukraine. Since 1658 Sumy was a center of the Sumy Cossack Regiment (military unit and local administrative division). In 1680s around Sumy started to form unfortified suburbs.
At the end of 17th century Sumy played a role of collection point of Muscovite troops during the Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689. During the Great Northern War (1700–1721) in December 1708 – January 1709 in the city was located Stavka (headquarters) of Muscovite Chief of Commander headed by Tsar Peter the Great. Established under the leadership of Prince A.Shakhovskoy, in 1734-43 in Sumy was located the Commission on streamlining the Sloboda Cossack regiments. From its establishment and until the liquidation of Cossackdom in Sloboda Ukraine in 1765, the Cossack officer family of Kondratyevs had a great influence over the city.
Following the liquidation of Cossack community in 1765, Sumy Cossack Regiment as a administrative division was turned into Sumy Province of the newly created Sloboda Ukraine Governorate and the city of Sumy became its center. In 1780 Sumy was turned into a county (uyezd) seat. In 1786-89 the city was reformed by removing its city fort vallums. After a period of stagnation (1765–1860s), Sumy began to transform into a big industrial and trade center with the Paul's Sugar-Refining Factory (est. 1869 by I.Kharytonenko) and the Sumy Engineering Workshops (est. 1896, producing equipment for sugar refineries). With the construction of a railroad Vorozhba – Merefa, in January of 1877 in the city was built the Sumy train station. A great contribution in development of Sumy made various families of philanthropists industrialists, the most famous of which are Kharytonenkos.
During the German occupation of Ukraine during World War II (1941 – 1944), Sumy sustained heavy damage. Sumy was occupied from October 10, 1941 to September 2, 1943. After the war, the destroyed parts of the city were built anew. Sumy has been a twin town of Celle, Germany since January 17, 1990.
Sumy is located in the northeastern part of Ukraine within the Central Russian Upland and in historical region of Sloboda Ukraine. It is located on the banks of Psel River. Due to its relatively close location, the city's weather is similar to Kharkiv. Sumy's climate is a humid continental one: cold and snowy winters, and hot summers. The seasonal average temperatures are not too cold in winter, not too hot in summer: −6.9 °C (19.6 °F) in January, and 20.3 °C (68.5 °F) in July. The average rainfall totals 513 mm (20 in) per year, with the most in June and July.
The city has Sumy Airport. Built in 1978, since 2006 it was turn into international airport and able to .
There are several train stations in the city, two of which serve passenger trains. All train stations are part of the UZ regional branch Southern Railways. Sumy train station also is headquarters of one of four territorial subdivisions of the Southern Railways and conducts supervision over some other 45 train stations in Sumy, Poltava, and Kharkiv oblasts.
There are two major routes that cross the city H07 (Kiev–Yunakivka at Russian border) and H12 (Sumy–Poltava). There are also few regional routes P44 (Sumy–Hlukhiv), P45 (Sumy–Bohodukhiv), and P61 (Sumy–Baturyn).